Rapid protein kinase D1 signaling promotes migration of intestinal epithelial cells.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, Volume 303, Issue 3, p.G356-66 (2012)


We have examined the role of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling in intestinal epithelial cell migration. Wounding monolayer cultures of intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-18 or IEC-6 induced rapid PKD1 activation in the cells immediately adjacent to the wound edge, as judged by immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody that detects the phosphorylated state of PKD1 at Ser(916), an autophosphorylation site. An increase in PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser(916) was evident as early as 45 s after wounding, reached a maximum after 3 min, and persisted for ≥15 min. PKD1 autophosphorylation at Ser(916) was prevented by the PKD family inhibitors kb NB 142-70 and CRT0066101. A kb NB 142-70-sensitive increase in PKD autophosphorylation was also elicited by wounding IEC-6 cells. Using in vitro kinase assays after PKD1 immunoprecipitation, we corroborated that wounding IEC-18 cells induced rapid PKD1 catalytic activation. Further results indicate that PKD1 signaling is required to promote migration of intestinal epithelial cells into the denuded area of the wound. Specifically, treatment with kb NB 142-70 or small interfering RNAs targeting PKD1 markedly reduced wound-induced migration in IEC-18 cells. To test whether PKD1 promotes migration of intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, we used transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the small intestinal epithelium. Enterocyte migration was markedly increased in the PKD1 transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that PKD1 activation is one of the early events initiated by wounding a monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells and indicate that PKD1 signaling promotes the migration of these cells in vitro and in vivo.