Microbiota and autoimmunity.

Publication Type:

Review

Source:

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Volume 5, Issue 3, p.a007294 (2013)

Keywords:

Autoimmunitydigestive disease, digestive deseases Environmentdigestive disease, digestive deseases Gastrointestinal Tractdigestive disease, digestive deseases Homeostasisdigestive disease, digestive deseases Host-Pathogen Interactionsdigestive disease, digestive deseases Humansdigestive disease, digestive deseases Metagenomedigestive disease, digestive deseases Models, Immunologicaldigestive disease, digestive deseases Signal Transductiondigestive disease, digestive deseases Species Specificity

Abstract:

The commensal microbiota affects many aspects of mammalian health including control of the immune system to such a extent that a "commensalocentric" view of the maintenance of overall health could be suggested. Autoimmunity is a case of mistaken identity: The immune system reacts to self-tissues and cells as if they were pathogens. Autoimmune reactions can be both advanced or blocked by the commensal microbiota, which can affect innate and adaptive arms of immune responses as well as the mechanisms of "innate-adaptive connection." Whether specific microbial lineages affect immunity and autoimmunity (the "specific lineage hypothesis") or multiple lineages can tip the homeostatic balance that regulates host/microbiota homeostasis toward reduced or enhanced host reactivity (the "balanced signal hypothesis") is yet unknown. The complexity of host/microbiota interactions needs to be fully appreciated in order to find the means for prophylaxis and treatment of autoimmune disorders.