Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Pediatric clinics of North America, Volume 60, Issue 1, p.49-74 (2013)

Keywords:

Breast Milk Expressiondigestive disease, digestive deseases Dietary Fatsdigestive disease, digestive deseases Dietary Proteinsdigestive disease, digestive deseases Femaledigestive disease, digestive deseases Humansdigestive disease, digestive deseases Infantdigestive disease, digestive deseases Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomenadigestive disease, digestive deseases Infant, Newborndigestive disease, digestive deseases Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteinsdigestive disease, digestive deseases Lactationdigestive disease, digestive deseases Lactosedigestive disease, digestive deseases Micronutrientsdigestive disease, digestive deseases Milk Banksdigestive disease, digestive deseases Milk, Humandigestive disease, digestive deseases Pasteurization

Abstract:

This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.