A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2012)


We report the development of an all-fiber-optic scanning endomicroscope capable of high-resolution second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of biological tissues and demonstrate its utility for monitoring the remodeling of cervical collagen during gestation in mice. The endomicroscope has an overall 2.0 mm diameter and consists of a single customized double-clad fiber, a compact rapid two-dimensional beam scanner, and a miniature compound objective lens for excitation beam delivery, scanning, focusing, and efficient SHG signal collection. Endomicroscopic SHG images of murine cervical tissue sections at different stages of normal pregnancy reveal progressive, quantifiable changes in cervical collagen morphology with resolution similar to that of bench-top SHG microscopy. SHG endomicroscopic imaging of ex vivo murine and human cervical tissues through intact epithelium has also been performed. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of SHG endomicroscopy technology for staging normal pregnancy, and suggest its potential application as a minimally invasive tool for clinical assessment of abnormal cervical remodeling associated with preterm birth.